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How fast can a shoreline change?

Ohio’s Lake Erie shoreline consists of wetlands, low bluffs, and gently sloping shore in the western one-third of the state and glacial till and soft shale bluffs in the eastern two-thirds of the state. The rate of shore erosion is affected by the kind of land and rock materials and the use of protective structures. Use map reading skills to recognize some shoreline features on aerial photos, observe changes in a shoreline over time, and observe the effects of shoreline devices on rates of erosion.

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What evidence of glaciation exists in the Great Lakes region?

The Great Lakes Basin was once covered by the ice of continental glaciers. About 15,000 years ago the last ice melted to expose the lake basin. There have been minor advances and retreats of glaciers since then causing the level of the water in the lakes to rise and fall. How do scientists determine these past lake levels? Use mapping skills to identify the evidence of ancient beach ridges and  become aware of the uses of ancient beach ridges today.

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How did rocks and rivers shape the Great Lakes?

The rocks in the Great Lakes Basin are of two main types: metamorphic/igneous and sedimentary. The metamorphic/igneous rocks formed long ago, when molten rock hardened and the heat changed other rocks nearby without melting them. This happened over one billion years ago. The sedimentary rocks in the Great Lakes Basin formed in an ocean that covered most of the basin beginning about 600 million years ago. Use maps skills to relate the hardness of rocks to topography and lake depth, describe the topography of the Great Lakes area, and relate the pre-glacial drainage system to the present size and
position of the Great Lakes.

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What causes the shoreline to erode?

Shorelines along the Great Lakes vary in the nature of their sediments and resistance to erosion. Natural causes of erosion include waves, currents, and effects of wind and storms on shoreline processes. Simulate the processes of shoreline erosion to investigate the ongoing changes in coastal areas.

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Your Great Lake!

How much water does each Great Lake hold? Use this lesson as a demonstration or a classroom lesson to create visual representations of the Great Lakes, Lake Baikal, and the relationships between surface area, retention time and pollution effects.

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Density: Sea Water Mixing and Sinking

Two of the most important characteristics of ocean water are its temperature and salinity.
Together they help govern the density of seawater, which is a major factor controlling the ocean’s
vertical movements and layered circulation.

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How Can Disappearances Within the Triangle Be Explained?

Your class should first study the locations of missing craft and personnel in the activity titled, “What is the Great Lakes Triangle?” Like scientists, you should examine the data for trends and indicators; in this case you examine concentrations of the disappearances and speculate on their causes. The present investigation is actually three activities that are to be performed by different classroom groups simultaneously through cooperative learning. If time permits, all three activities could be done by the entire class.

The activities treat the wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald as example of a Great Lakes Triangle tragedy. When all three topics have been considered, there will be a discussion to consider whether the wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald was an accident resulting from natural causes or whether other supernatural or extraterrestrial forces might be at work (as proposed in Berlitz’ The Bermuda Triangle).

Objectives:

  • Discuss the values of using several data types and sources to solve a science problem.
  • Demonstrate how bathymetric charts are used and constructed.
  • Demonstrate how weather information is mapped and interpreted.
  • Give an example of how scientists use multiple working hypotheses to solve complex problems.

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What is the Great Lakes Triangle?

Former aviator Jay Gourley has written a book called The Great Lakes Triangle (1977), which claims that the Great Lakes account for more unexplained disappearances per unit area than the Bermuda Triangle. This is no small comparison, considering that the Bermuda Triangle is 16 times larger than the Great Lakes area.
When you have completed this activity you will be able to:
  • Demonstrate an ability to perceive patterns in a set of data.
  • Explain how scientific habits of mind should include the seeking of logical explanations for “mysterious” happenings.

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Where Should I Relocate in the Great Lakes Region?

This activity will allow students to describe the Great Lakes region using a map and identify some of the resources the region has to offer. Also, by using maps and graphs students can demonstrate how they can provide information for decision making. Students will describe a decision making process by which people can evaluate a geographic area as a possible home site.

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